Chicken Flu Research Today is a free monthly online journal that collates and summarizes the latest research about Chicken Flu, including details on avian influenza, pandemic, symptoms, vaccines.
Enhancement of Th1-biased protective immunity against avian influenza H9N2 virus via oral co-administration of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interferon-alpha and interleukin-18 along with an inactivated vaccine.
Rahman MM, Uyanga E, Han YW, Kim SB, Kim JH, Choi JY, Eo SK
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Control of currently circulating re-assorted low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 is a major concern for both animal and human health. Thus, an improved LPAI H9N2 vaccination strategy is needed to induce complete immunity in chickens against LPAI H9N2 virus strains. Cytokines play a crucial role in mounting both the type and extent of an immune response generated following infection with a pathogen or after vaccination. To improve the efficacy of inactivated LPAI H9N2 vaccine, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was used for oral co-administration of chicken interferon-alpha (chIFN-alpha) and chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18) as natural immunomodulators. RESULTS: Oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-alpha and chIL-18, prior to vaccination with inactivated AI H9N2 vaccine, modulated the immune response of chickens against the vaccine antigen through enhanced humoral and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to chickens that received single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing either chIFN-alpha or chIL-18. To further test the protective efficacy of this improved vaccination regimen, immunized chickens were intra-tracheally challenged with a high dose of LPAI H9N2 virus. Combined administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-alpha and chIL-18 showed markedly enhanced protection compared to single administration of the construct, as determined by mortality, clinical severity, and feed and water intake. This enhancement of protective immunity was further confirmed by reduced rectal shedding and replication of AIV H9N2 in different tissues of challenged chickens. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate the value of combined administration of chIFN-alpha and chIL-18 using a Salmonella vaccine strain to generate an effective immunization strategy in chickens against LPAI H9N2.
Published 10 July 2012 in BMC Vet Res, 8(1): 105.
Articles on Chicken Flu published 10 July 2012:
Diversifying evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus in Egypt from 2006 to 2011. Virus Genes, 45(1): 14-23.
An evolutionary analysis was conducted of 354 hemagglutinin (HA) and 208 neuraminidase (NA) genes, including newly generated sequences of 5 HA and 30 NA, of Egyptian H5N1 clade 2.2.1 viruses isolated from poultry and humans. Five distinct phylogenetically distinguishable clusters arose from a monophyletic origin since 2006. Only two clusters remained in circulation after 2009: (i) A cluster of viruses arose in 2007 in industrial-vaccinated chickens and carried multiple mutations in or adjacent ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Avian influenza virus (H9N2) infection is a major problem of product performance in poultry worldwide. Vaccination is used to limit spread, but more knowledge is needed on the epidemiology of virus subtypes to improve vaccine design. In this study, 40 H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from vaccinated poultry flocks in China from 2010 to 2011. Hemagglutinin (HA) from different virus strains was sequenced and analyzed. We found that the HA genes of these strains shared ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Genetic evolution of the H9N2 avian influenza virus in Korean poultry farms. Virus Genes, 45(1): 38-47.
We performed whole genome sequencing of 22 H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) isolated from domestic laying hens on farms between 2005 and 2008, and compared the sequences with viruses previously reported in Asia. A previous study revealed that two antigenically distinct sublineages were established within the MS96 lineage by antigenic drift since the first H9N2 AIV outbreak in South Korea. We designated them as the 01310-like lineage and the 116/04-like lineage. Since late 2004, most ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Profiling of humoral immune responses to influenza viruses by using protein microarray. Clin Microbiol Infect, 18(8): 797-807.
Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: The emergence of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza showed the importance of rapid assessment of the degree of immunity in the population, the rate of asymptomatic infection, the spread of infection in households, effects of control measures, and ability of candidate vaccines to produce a response in different age groups. A limitation lies in the available assay repertoire: reference standard methods for measuring antibodies to influenza virus are haemagglutination ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Articles on Chicken Flu published 9 July 2012:
Influenza A are nuclear replicating viruses which hijack host machineries in order to achieve optimal infection. Numerous functional virus-host interactions have now been characterized, but little information has been gathered concerning their link to the virally induced remodeling of the host cellular architecture. In this study, we infected cells with several human and avian influenza viruses and we have analyzed their ultrastructural modifications by using electron and confocal microscopy. ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Influenza outbreaks are widespread in swine and avian populations. Disease control is jeopardized by the extreme antigenic variability of virus strains. Primary isolation of Influenza virus is performed using embryonated chicken eggs (ECE), but alternatives to ECE are badly needed. Although various cultured cells have been used for propagating Influenza A viruses, few types of cells can efficiently support virus replication. One of the most commonly cell lines used in order to isolate Influenza ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Articles on Chicken Flu published 6 July 2012:
H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have shown expanded host range and can infect mammals, such as humans and swine. To date the mechanisms of mammalian adaptation and interspecies transmission of H9N2 AIVs remain poorly understood. To explore the molecular basis determining mammalian adaptation of H9N2 AIVs, we compared two avian field H9N2 isolates in a mouse model: one (A/chicken/Guangdong/TS/2004, TS) is nonpathogenic, another one (A/chicken/Guangdong/V/2008, V) is lethal with ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Articles on Chicken Flu published 5 July 2012:
Food Safety: At the Center of a One Health Approach for Combating Zoonoses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol.
Food Safety is at the center of One Health. Many, if not most, of all important zoonoses relate in some way to animals in the food production chain. Therefore, the food becomes an important vehicle for many, but not all, of these zoonotic pathogens. One of the major issues in food safety over the latest decennia has been the lack of cross-sectoral collaboration across the food production chain. Major food safety events have been significantly affected by the lack of collaboration between the ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
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